Challenges of Education

The Indian government must increase inclusivity for modern education to ensure it reaches all deserving citizens.

By Salis Malik | December 2022

Out of all the constituents of a social foundation, education is the most paramount. The pace of economic progress can be augmented by skilled and well-trained labour, which is an upshot of a good education system. However, despite India’s best efforts, the level of the country’s institutional progress regarding their education system remains abysmal in various ways and remains inflicted with a myriad of chinks within its armour. Therefore, the effectiveness and productivity of the workforce in India will only increase with enough investment in the educational sector. In the end, educated individuals aid in speeding the rate of economic development, culminating in the expansion of the nation.

The contemporary Indian education system can be traced back to the time when the British colonial government introduced modern education to India. During the colonial era, the Macaulay Minute, Wood’s Dispatch, Curzon’s education policy, Sadler Commission, and other legislation laid the groundwork for the Indian educational system. After India gained its independence, the Constitution created, entailed six fundamental rights, one of which was the right to education. Despite the gradual conditioning, the system of education has garnered in the country. India is still riddled with complications and sundry other problems.

Education is regarded as a significant factor in determining the quality of life. The productivity and efficacy of the workforce will grow with adequate investment in the domain of education. This sort of investment is known as “human capital formation” by economists. These economists posit that the body of knowledge obtained by the population and ability of the people to employ the knowledge effectively, we imply “human capital.” Out of all the other social infrastructure components, education is the most crucial. The pace of economic development can be accelerated by having a workforce that is appropriately educated and skilled.

The biggest issue preventing education from progressing is a lack of adequate funding. Education spending in five-year plans has been falling. Most educational institutions lack infrastructure, science equipment, libraries, etc. due to a lack of funding. As a result, the expected outcomes cannot be obtained. In India, college education along with professional and technical education has become more expensive. The cost of attending technical and professional schools, such as IIMs, is relatively high. For MBA classes, IIMs charge Rs. 2 lakh per semester. It is out of the ordinary man’s price range. The emergence of profit-driven entrepreneurs can be attributed to the privatization of higher education. Higher education today is a very expensive endeavour. English is used as the primary teaching language, notably for science courses. Therefore, English language learners from rural areas cannot adequately study science in English. They endure great suffering; Indian languages are still in their infancy. Standard publications cannot be found in many Indian languages.

When qualified people, who are intelligent, skilled, and deserving, cannot find employment, they prefer to look for employment abroad. India hence lacks good talent. This occurrence is known as “brain drain. “India is unable to reach 100% literacy despite constitutional mandates and economic planning. About 35 per cent of individuals are still illiterate today. In India, over one-third of all illiterates live in poverty. The literacy rate in developed nations is 100%; in India, it is incredibly low. General education is the foundation of India’s educational system. In the primary and secondary levels, there is an extremely high dropout rate. The majority of pupils in the age range of 6 to 14 drop out before finishing their schooling. Moreover, primary education in India is plagued by far too many complications. Many elementary schools lack even the most basic amenities, including buildings, furniture, study materials, power, and urinals. Numerous primary schools only have one teacher, and many more are entirely without teachers or “ghost teachers”. Therefore, the high drop-off rate is worrying.

While the current situation of the structure of education in India might as well be entwined as a tricky Gordian knot, trying to unpick it is not an insurmountable task which many would think. To overhaul the current system in the country, India needs to embark on a path of rigorous digital education, hence innovations are needed. This will support the development of students’ and the nation’s youth’s innovative ideas. The Indian educational system will change as a result, and the authorities and government must encourage and support the young brains to put more of an emphasis on holistic development than just book-learning.
Moreover, the Indian education authorities need to improve the level of education as well. The level of education offered in rural and urban areas of the nation differs significantly. It is necessary to take measures to uniformly raise the standard of education in India so that everyone has access to fair and impartial information and growth possibilities.

Furthermore, the country needs to make education more affordable. With a plethora of people below the poverty line, it is imperative to make education less expensive and more accessible. There are government schools and educational institutions that are reasonably priced yet fall short in terms of quality and facilities. On the other hand, there are several private educational schools that charge exorbitant tuition fees and have better facilities and study aids. The government must address this discrepancy and make education accessible and cheap for everyone. Another important step the government needs to take is to instil the importance of subjects and professions that are not related to engineering or the medical field. Students are encouraged to become machines that only take high-profile courses, whereas courses like languages, communications, and the arts are viewed with contempt and are not thought of as high-profile. Instead of differentiating between subjects, students should be encouraged to pursue the one they enjoy.

The contemporary education system of India, on paper, is probably considered one of the world’s leading education systems, but when viewed with analyzing the education to population ratio, things become more clear and the problems within the system soon open up. Therefore, it is cardinal for the Indian government to increase inclusivity for modern higher education for people around the country. With a country this big, effective measures taken in the field of education could enhance the economy of the country manifold.